Over the past 12-months, almost 50 original publications concerning non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters were published. This review summarizes these main findings. A paragraph concerning the importance of Helicobacters in the environment is also presented. Three novel Helicobacter species were proposed: ‘Helicobacter delphinicola’ sp. nov. was isolated from the stomach of dolphins; ‘Helicobacter monodelphidis’ sp. nov. and ‘Helicobacter didelphidarum’ sp. nov. were isolated from the feces and the large intestine of opossums. Data showed the virulence of Helicobacter suis in mammals, supported its transmission from pigs to human, and highlighted the relevance of testing H. suis in gastric biopsies from patients negative for H. pylori infection. Data proposed longer duration treatment for successful eradication of Helicobacter cinaedi in humans. A role for Helicobacter bilis in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinogenesis was also shown in humans and new data supported the zoonotic importance of Helicobacter spp. in dogs. Several studies in Helicobacter felis-infected mice models akin to human gastric cancers have shown the importance of serine-phosphorylated-STAT3, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and NLRC5 signaling in the promotion of gastric cancer, as well as the therapeutic potential of CCL28 blockade in gastric cancer progression. Using susceptible mice infected with enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. akin to human inflammatory bowel diseases, epigenetic dysregulation following chronic inflammation was shown to participate in the initiation of colorectal cancer; the protective effects of the inhibition of ALDH1A enzyme by WIN 18,446 was shown in Smad3−/− mice; and Helicobacter hepaticus GroEL/Hsp60 was identified as a driver of colitis in a CD40-mediated model of colitis and its CDT promoted colitis development by activating the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Finally, the wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella, was reported to be a useful and fast model to assess virulence of enterohepatic Helicobacter spp.
To cite this article
Review – Non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters
Microb Health Dis 2021;
Submission date: 17 Jun 2021
Revised on: 28 Jun 2021
Accepted on: 21 Jul 2021
Published online: 04 Aug 2021
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