Instructions for the Authors

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JOURNAL ISSN (ONLINE VERSION): 2704-8845

Microbiota in Health and Disease publishes Editorials, Reviews, Original Papers, Clinical trials, and Scientific Correspondence/Letters. Brief reports, structured with introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions are also welcome, with a maximum number of 700 words (excluded references), no more than 5 authors, maximum 2 tables or figures, and maximum 10 references; Case Reports will also be considered for publication only if of particular interest. Microbiota in Health and Disease is particularly interested in all issues related to the microbiota world, from epidemiology to diagnosis and therapy, including translational and basic aspects. Reviews should include systematic revision of the literature and preferably meta-analyses, original illustrations, and tables.

Microbiota in Health and Disease is the official journal of the European Helicobacter and Microbiota Study Group – EHMSG (https://www.helicobacter.org/), an international multidisciplinary group composed of one representative from most countries of the European Union, with the mission to promote research in the field of H. pylori and microbiota and their role in health and disease. In this direction, Microbiota in Health and Disease will also serve as a shared platform for communicating and debating challenges and opportunities on the path to the development of new diagnostic tools and new treatments.

Microbiota in Health and Disease does not accept the publication of language referring to “data not shown” or “unpublished data”. Letters are restricted to the discussion of papers already published in the journal, with a maximum of 300 words, one table or figure, and up to ten references.

Brief reports, structured with introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions are also welcome, with a maximum number of 700 words (excluded references), no more than 5 authors, maximum 2 tables or figures, and maximum 10 references; Case Reports will also be considered for publication only if of particular interest.

Article Processing Charges (APCs)

No fee is required to publish in our Journal. Microbiota in Health and Disease does not charge APCs or submission charges.

Manuscript Submission

Please read and apply the loading instructions given at this site, noting that all information entered during the submission process related to the manuscript should also be included, and be identical to the final submitted version of the manuscript – please see full details under “Presentation of Manuscripts”. Papers must be submitted exclusively to the Journal, and are accepted on the understanding that they have not been, and will not be, published elsewhere. The correspondence for each article must be followed only by the corresponding author. The submission process requires a full declaration of personal interests of all Authors and funding interests; these details should also be included in the text of the manuscript (see below).

Please note that the journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to the journal, you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published work.

Authorship and Copyright

Authors must fulfill the following criteria:

• He/she must have made a substantial contribution to research design, or to the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data;

• He/she must have drafted the paper or revised it critically;

• He/she must approve the submitted and final versions.

Copyright Transfer Agreement: Microbiota in Health and Disease Authors will be required to sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement (click to download PDF) for all papers accepted for publication. Signature of the CTA is a condition of publication and papers will not be passed to the publisher for production unless a signed form has been received. After submission, authors cannot submit their manuscript to other journals. After acceptance, the Publisher got the rights and became the owner of the paper. To assist Authors, an appropriate CTA form will be supplied by the editorial office. The original completed Copyright Transfer Agreement must be signed by the corresponding Author and sent by e-mail to Microbiota in Health and Disease. The Editors retain the usual right to modify the style and length of a contribution (major changes being agreed with the corresponding Author) and to decide the time of publication.

Licensing

Microbiota in Health and Disease applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license to articles. If you submit your paper for publication to our journal, you agree to have the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license applied to your work as follows:

BY) Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

NC) NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.

SA) ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.

No additional restrictions) You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.

Notices: you do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.

No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.

Presentation of Manuscripts

A title page must contain the Authors’ names, appointments and place of work at the relevant time, plus the full contact details of the Corresponding Author including their current e-mail address. A full and a short running title should be given, together with a small number of keywords for indexing purposes.

The text should start with a structured Abstract, not exceeding 300 words, organized into sections using all of the following headings INTRODUCTION or BACKGROUND or OBJECTIVE, PATIENTS AND METHODS or MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS. The paper should then proceed conventionally: Introduction or Background or Objective, Patients and Methods or Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, and References. Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, including tables, figure legends (with magnifications if needed), acknowledgments and declaration of interests. Review Articles and Systematic Reviews also require a structured summary using all of the following headings: INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS (e.g., search terms used), RESULTS (avoid vague statements, e.g., ‘…will be discussed’), CONCLUSIONS (e.g., need for future studies).

References must be numbered in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text, and should be identified in the text, tables, and legends by Arabic numbers in superscript. The US National Library of Medicine and used in Index Medicus applies (for more details see the section “References”). References must be verified by the Authors against the original documents.

Authors should observe the following guidelines.

  1. Do not attempt to make your output approximate or match the typeset page.
  2. Be consistent in style (i.e. units, abbreviations).
  3. End paragraphs in a uniform manner, and in a different manner from line endings within paragraphs. A frequently used paragraph ending is simply two carriage returns.
  4. Use double spacing in your document. Do not add extra line spacing (except as a normal paragraph ending indication) above or below titles, subheads, or between paragraphs.
  5. Avoid using multiple spaces (horizontal) in your electronic manuscript. End sentences with only one space. Never use multiple spaces for horizontal positioning of text.
  6. Tables and figure captions should be prepared in separate files. The copyeditor will indicate the placement of this material within the text.

Additional tables or figures and/or extra methodological detail can be included in a separate Supplementary Appendix.

Authors who want to publish on our Journal must follow the guidelines on Good Publication Practice: COPE https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines and PERK http://jp.elsevier.com/_old/editors/perk. These guidelines aim to ensure that articles are published in a responsible and ethical manner.

References

When reporting the reference numbers in the text, you must follow these rules: “1-2” must be written as “1,2” and so on. You have to put “-“ just in case you have many consecutive numbers. For example: “1,2,3,4,5,6” must be written as “1-6”;

References’ numbers must follow a chronological order within the text and must be inserted before the punctuation. (YES 12. NO .12)

Complete all the references in accordance with the Instructions for the authors (see How to submit an article, https://www.microbiotajournal.com/): you must list all the authors (NOT et al), year without month of publication, name of the journal: write the international acronyms without any punctuation; you must put a space after semicolon and colon (NOT 2014;2014:907915, YES 2014; 2014: 907915); moreover, initial and final pages must be entirely reported (NOT 135-46; YES 135-146).

NOT: Garcia-Contreras M, Brooks RW, Boccuzzi L, Robbins PD, Ricordi C. Exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic tools for type 1 diabetes mellitus. EurRevMedPharmacolSci 2017;21:2940-2956.

YES: Garcia-Contreras M, Brooks RW, Boccuzzi L, Robbins PD, Ricordi C. Exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutic tools for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21: 2940-2956.

In the references, you must substitute “and” with “,” (comma) before the last author’s name;

In the references, all the authors must be written with the same character size. You must write only the first letter in capital letter, without change the size of them.

(NOT) Example 1: DA. Baidal, C. Ricordi, M. Garcia-Contreras, A. Sonnino, A. Fabbri. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: A potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;20(15):3313-8.

(YES) Example 1: Baidal DA, Ricordi C, Garcia-Contreras M, Sonnino A, Fabbri A. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: a potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016; 20: 3313-3318.

(NOT) Example 2: Rokkas T., Niv Y, Gisbert J.P., Franceschi F., Gasbarrini A., Hold G.L., O’Morain C., Malfertheiner P., Megraud F. The role of rifaximin in irritable bowel syndrome derived from a network meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Microb Health Dis 2020; 2: e333.

(YES) Example 2: Rokkas T, Niv Y, Gisbert JP, Franceschi F, Gasbarrini A, Hold GL, O’Morain C, Malfertheiner P, Megraud F. The role of rifaximin in irritable bowel syndrome derived from a network meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Microb Health Dis 2020; 2: e333.

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Instructions for a Review Article

Microbiota in Health and Disease (Microb Health Dis) publishes substantive reviews on the current topics and recent advances in the scientific literature.

Review Article: All articles will be peer-reviewed prior to consideration. Include an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words. The main article should be no more than 4,000 words including references, figures and tables. The review should contain at least 2 and not more than 8 figures or tables.

Review Article (Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis): Include a structured abstract of not more than 250 words. The main article should be no more than 5,000 words including references, figures and tables. The review should contain at least 2 and not more than 8 figures or tables.

Issues to be considered:
• Clinical problem
• Strategies and evidence
• Areas of uncertainty
• Guidelines from professional societies
• Authors’ conclusions and recommendations

Illustrations and Tables

Figure legends should be included in the main text of the manuscript and not form part of the figures. The authors are encouraged to send the highest-quality figures possible. For the accepted file format, see below:

Document Files Graphic Files Graphic Files
• Word • GIF
• TIF (or TIFF)
• EPS
• PNG
• JPG (or JPEG)
• BMP
• Quicktime

•  MPEG

• AVI

 

The figure resolution/specification for various types of original figures, at their final size, should be as follows: Line art – Minimum 600 dpi, measuring preferably 13 by 18 cm and no more than 20 by 25 cm in size. Halftone (i.e., both B/W and Colour photographs) – Minimum 300 dpi, measuring preferably 13 by 18 cm and no more than 20 by 25 cm in size. Line and tone (line art and halftone combined) – Minimum 600 dpi, measuring preferably 13 by 18 cm and no more than 20 by 25 cm in size.

For line figures, the lines should be solid, the text in a standard font and not blurred, and the overall image should be sharp and clear. Avoid using tints if possible; if they are essential to the understanding of the figure, try to make them coarse. As a guide, if the electronic files are viewed at 400% on the computer screen and they look blurred or pixelated in any way, then they will NOT be of sufficient quality for printing.

Tables should be self-contained and complete; they must not duplicate the information already contained in the text. They should be supplied as editable files (preferably word files), not pasted as images. All abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for p-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

Figure and table legends must be able to stand alone in the text and thus full descriptive legends for all figures and tables should be supplied.

Units and Abbreviations

All measurements should be in SI units with the exception of hemoglobin (g/dL) and blood pressure (mmHg). Original observations recorded in other units should be stated, together with the appropriate conversion factors. Standard abbreviations, without punctuation, are used. Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations (1988) published by the Royal Society of Medicine, and SI: The International System of Units (1982) from HMSO both provide useful guides. Abbreviations, used sparingly, should follow the first full spelling, in parentheses. A list of abbreviations at the beginning of the article is accepted only if they are more than 8.

Genetic Nomenclature

Sequence variants should be described in the text and tables using both DNA and protein designations whenever appropriate. Sequence variant nomenclature must follow the current HGVS guidelines; see http://varnomen.hgvs.org/, where examples of acceptable nomenclature are provided.

Statistics

Methods should be referenced. Two-tailed significance tests should be used unless explicitly stated. Controls should be described as completely as experimental subjects. Measures of location should be accompanied by measures of variability (e.g., mean and confidence intervals) as well as conventional probability values. Clinical trial reports should include the power of the study design.

Ethics, Institutional Review Boards, and Informed Consent

Submitted clinical studies must include a reference to the appropriate Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board (IRB) and have an appropriate Consent Form approved by the Ethics Committee/IRB before enrollment of the research subjects in the reported study. Appropriate review process and approval should also be documented for all pre-clinical experimental studies submitted. When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Should any questionable approval process emerge, the Editors reserve the right to reject any submitted paper.

Animal Ethics

When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether institutional and national standards for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Informed Consent

Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where authors wish to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in their publication. This is to comply with all applicable laws and regulations concerning the privacy and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679.

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication.

The following statement should be included in each manuscript submitted to our journal:

Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Some Considerations

• Images of patients or research subjects should not be used unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and explicit permission has been given as part of the consent.
• If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, authors should provide assurances that such alterations do not distort scientific meaning.
• Formal consents are not required for the use of entirely anonymized images from which the individual cannot be identified – for example, x-rays, ultrasound images, laparoscopic images, etc.
• If consent has not been obtained, it is generally not sufficient to anonymize a photograph simply by using eye bars or blurring the face of the individual concerned.

Clinical Trials

All clinical trials submitted to Microbiota in Health and Disease for consideration of publication must be registered http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) defines a clinical trial as “any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt.”http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) defines a clinical trial as “any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt.”

For definitions and further information, please see the section titled http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/icmje-recommendations/ found in ICMJE’s Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Please note, however, that unlike ICMJE, Microbiota in Health and Disease does not require trials to be registered before enrollment begins, although Microbiota in Health and Disease does encourage this practice. When submitting your manuscript, please include the unique trial number and the name of the registry (e.g., ClinicalTrials.gov or ISRCTN) at the end of the abstract and in your cover letter.

Plagiarism or other types of unethical publication practice

Regarding plagiarism or other types of unethical publication practice, Authors who want to publish in our Journal must follow the guidelines on Good Publication Practice as reported in COPE and Council of Science Editors. These guidelines aim to ensure that articles are published in a responsible and ethical manner.

On a practical level, the first thing we do is conduct an early investigation using our anti-plagiarism software. Our Journal makes a plagiarism checker by a certificate program on all the articles. Also, articles that are related to the suspected case of plagiarism or other unethical practice are checked accuracy by either the reviewer feedback and observations or the Editor’s own observations. Our anti-plagiarism software, however, will not identify “salami slicing”. So it is imperative that each case is looked at individually and, therefore, we do not advocate the use of one statement of actions to penalize the offender. Each case is considered separately and, as editors, we will need to decide if it is a deliberate action on the part of the author or it is due to lack of understanding of the requirements of ethical writing. This can happen for new authors or some authors where translation to English is often difficult. An example of this is where there are no words/phrases in that language that translate into English, and a developing practice that we noted is the ‘borrowing’ of words, phrases or often sentences that are considered appropriate for what authors mean to say.

Microbiota in Health and Disease disapproves any kind of malpractice and unethical practice.

Financial Support

Sources of financial support during the last two years must be acknowledged. Please read the following statements, adding those sections, which are relevant at the end of your submitted manuscript under a heading ‘Statement of Interests’.

Authors’ declaration of personal interests: (i) [Name of individual] has served as a speaker, a consultant and an advisory board member for [names of organizations], and has received research funding from [names of organization]. (ii) [Name of individual] is an employee of [name of organization]. (iii) [Name of individual] owns stocks and shares in [name of organization]. (iv) [Name of individual] owns patent [patent identification and brief description].

Declaration of funding interests: (i) This study was funded [in part or in full] by [insert name of funding organization], grant number [insert grant or other identification numbers]. (ii) The [writing or preparation] of this paper was funded in part by [insert name of funding organization]. (iii) Initial data analyses were undertaken by [name of individuals if not listed as Authors] who are employees of [name company] and received funding from [insert name of funding organization]. (iv) Writing support was provided by [insert name of individual(s)] of [name company] and funded by [insert name of funding organization].

Drug Names

Generic names should, in general, be used. If an Author desires, brand names may be inserted in parentheses. Drug names are spelled out according to the European Pharmacopoeia, but the American spelling should be used after the first use of a drug name.

Revised Articles

Revised articles must be submitted again within 3 months.

Galley Proofs

The Corresponding Author will receive an e-mail with a pdf file of the galley proof. The galley proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out for any corrections to be added. Excessive changes (i.e., over 100 characters) made by the Author to the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Changes to figures and tables have an extra cost. Please check carefully the galley proof (especially for what concerns name of Authors, affiliations and corresponding Authors) as after its approval no further change will be possible.

Before the publication, Microbiota in Health and Disease sends the final galley proof in which only missed misstatements in the previous galley proof can be corrected.

Reprints

Paper reprints shall be charged. Electronic offprints are sent to the first Author at his/her first email address on the title page of the paper, on request. For this reason, please ensure that the name, address, and email address of the corresponding Author are indicated on the manuscript title page if he/she is not the first author of the paper.

Supplements

You can contact direction@microbiotajournal.com

Preservation and Archiving

Our Journal is committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and to ensure accessibility by upgrading digital file formats to comply with new technology standards. All our files are archived and preserved in CLOCKSS.