Helicobacter pylori infection is usually acquired during childhood. Therefore, it is important to study H. pylori infection in childhood in regard to the risk factors for its acquisition, the clinical and histopathologic manifestations, the inflammatory and physiologic responses to infection, the genotypic characteristics and pathogenesis of H. pylori strains, the efficacy of different treatment regimens and the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods. This review summarizes relevant publications from April 2020 to March 2021. Despite the decline in infection in most areas, the prevalence in some others continues to be high. A possible association of infection with otitis media with effusion (OME) was again reported but without definite proof of a causal relationship, as it concerns growth and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). A reverse association of infection with asthma and celiac disease was also found. Resistance rates to antibiotics is extremely high all over the world and it is probably the main cause of eradication failure. Thus, in addition to culture, new invasive and non-invasive techniques are proposed for identification of resistance. Standard triple therapy, ideally prescribed according to the H. pylori susceptibility, is still the most used regimen.
To cite this article
Review – Helicobacter pylori infection in children
Microb Health Dis 2021;
Submission date: 17 Jun 2021
Revised on: 28 Jun 2021
Accepted on: 21 Jul 2021
Published online: 04 Aug 2021
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