This review covers publications on the associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and non-malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract published between April 2021 and March 2022. Data on the influence of H. pylori on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remained controversial, showing a protective or no effect. An increase in the GERD prevalence was observed as the consequence of H. pylori eradication. The analyses of the association between H. pylori and Barrett’s esophagus (BE) showed opposite results: an inverse effect on BE, especially for the CagA-positive H. pylori strain, and no effect in patients with GERD complications. The impact of H. pylori on the expression of non-coding RNAs and different signalling pathways of inflammation was demonstrated. The colonisation by H. pylori significantly decreased the α-diversity of the gastric microbiota. After successful eradication of H. pylori, the bacterial diversity index increased, and Rhodococcus, Lactobacillus, and Sphingomona genera were significantly enriched. The authors discussed the possibility that these bacteria might be involved in gastric cancer development after H. pylori eradication. The artificial intelligence system could be a good resource for easier diagnosis of gastric precancerous lesions and H. pylori infection. Calculation of the economic effect of H. pylori eradication strategy for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease revealed great cost savings compared with proton-pump inhibitor therapy alone. H. pylori infection was a potential risk factor for the formation of gastric polyps, and the eradication of H. pylori increased the polyp elimination rate. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was lower in patients with coeliac disease than in controls. In conclusion, H. pylori remains a crucial factor in the development of GI diseases. Further studies on understanding molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated diseases and the effect on H. pylori eradication are needed.
To cite this article
Review: Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases
Microb Health Dis 2022;
Submission date: 29 Jun 2022
Revised on: 29 Jul 2022
Accepted on: 22 Aug 2022
Published online: 07 Sep 2022
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