This review presents a summary of recent publications regarding the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. We initially discuss the prevalence of H. pylori in several countries in Asia and Africa. African countries generally have a prevalence of more than 50%, while Asian countries show a high prevalence in countries such as Korea (43.9%) and China (44.2%), and a low prevalence in countries such as Indonesia (10.4%) and Sri Lanka (2.5%). The prevalence of H. pylori in children, the geriatric population, military personnel, and disease-related studies was described by several meta-analyses. We highlight the current knowledge of risk factors of H. pylori infection. In 2021, various studies were published regarding age, sex, eating habits, crowding and annual income, drinking water sources, washing hand habits, smoking, and periodontitis. These risk factors could affect H. pylori transmission, which are divided into family-based transmission, zoonotic-based transmission, and habit-based transmission. These three transmissions can be considered as environmental factors that should be managed to prevent further transmission and reinfection. Finally, we briefly summarise the current knowledge of H. pylori co-infection with Epstein–Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which affect the clinical outcome of H. pylori-infected patients.
To cite this article
Review: Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection
Microb Health Dis 2022;
Submission date: 10 Jun 2022
Revised on: 29 Jul 2022
Accepted on: 23 Aug 2022
Published online: 07 Sep 2022
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