The routes and modes of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection are still unproven. This is the most important part of its epidemiology. The fecal-oral (person-to-person, foodborne, environmental patterns) and the oral-oral (or gastro-oral predominantly in childhood and associated with vomiting) routes of transmission are assumed to be most likely. Recently, fecal transplantation has been used for treatment, but the possible transmission of H. pylori during oral capsule-based fecal microbiota transplantation was found negative. Occupational exposure occurs in hospital-acquired infections. One of the important modes of transmission is intrafamilial. A new family-based strategy for H. pylori infection prevention and control (FBCM) has been implemented in China. FBCM is more cost-effective and efficient for the prevention of gastric cancer. In the last year, studies on the prevalence of H. pylori among patients with oncological diseases (gastric carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, etc.), as well as the prevalence of mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, prevailed. The low level of awareness regarding one of the main risk factors for stomach cancer is striking. The knowledge of veterinarians about the zoonotic potential and risk of Helicobacter spp. are also insufficient. The gut microbiota could influence people’s health and play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. A role for the complement component C3-C3aR signaling on brain functionality via H. pylori outer membrane vesicles passing biological barriers was found to be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The optimal serum level of vitamin D has an independent protective effect against H. pylori infection.
To cite this article
Review – Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection
Microb Health Dis 2023;
Submission date: 12 Jun 2023
Revised on: 26 Jun 2023
Accepted on: 08 Sep 2023
Published online: 27 Oct 2023
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